Tags Posts tagged with "Dry Mouth"

Dry Mouth

9
Meth Mouth Destroys Teeth
©Roby Byron/Shutterstock.com

Methamphetamine, like many other illicit drugs can harm your teeth fairly rapidly.  Back in September, I wrote an article entitled Seven Ways Crystal Methamphetamine Ruins Your Teeth. That article gave seven main ways that crystal meth damages your teeth.

Drug DealThis article, on the other hand, will show you in pictures exactly what methamphetamine can do to your teeth.

FYI, if you have a weak stomach, you may not want to look at the pictures as some may find the teeth a bit gross.

Meth Mouth: The Effects of Methamphetamine On Your Teeth

The picture below is of a patient that came to a dental school who was suspected of using methamphetamine.  All of the brown and dark brown on his teeth are cavities.  The methamphetamine has helped the bacteria in the mouth eat away at the teeth.

Meth Mouth

The photo below is a close-up view of the left side of the picture above.  You can clearly see that a lot of the tooth structure has been destroyed due to a simple methamphetamine addiction.

Meth Mouth Closeup

Not Just Your Teeth — Methamphetamine Affects Your Whole Body

In dental school, we are learning more about the mouth-body connection.  This article wouldn’t be complete without showing that methamphetamine not only affects the teeth, but it affects the body in many ways.

The diagram below lists about three dozen ways that methamphetamine adversely affects your body, including high blood pressure, heart attack, and kidney damage.

Methamphetamine Effects on Body

Conclusion

Methamphetamine can damage your teeth and create a condition commonly known as Meth Mouth.  Methamphetamine also can damage your whole body in a variety of ways.

Do you have any questions or comments on methamphetamine and dental health?  Leave them below in the comments section.  Thanks for reading!

11
Prescription Medications that Cause Dry Mouth
©Burlingham/Shutterstock.com

Did you know that many prescription and over-the-counter medications we take every day can cause dry mouth?

As I mentioned in my previous article about the causes of dry mouth, the main types of drugs that can cause dry mouth are anti-depressants, sedatives, beta-blockers, high blood pressure medication, antihistamines, and cold/flu medications.

Many medications have been implicated in dry mouth, such as Viagra, Cialis, and 346 other medications all listed below.

348 Medications & Drugs That Cause Dry Mouth / Xerostomia

Drugs that Cause Dry Mouth

The drugs are listed in alphabetical order by the generic name.  If you want to search for a specific drug, just press Ctrl + F (Command+ F on Macs) to open the find dialog and type in the generic or brand name of a specific drug to see if it’s on the list.

  1. Abciximab – Marketed buy levaquin under the brand name Reopro.
  2. Acamprosate Calcium – Marketed under the brand name Campral.
  3. Acetaminophen with Tramadol – Marketed under the brand name Ultracet.
  4. Acetaminophen with Butalbital with Caffeine with Codeine Phosphate – Marketed under the brand name Phrenilin.
  5. Adenosine – Marketed under the brand name Adenoscan.
  6. Albuterol Sulfate with Ipratropium Bromide – Marketed under the brand name Combivent.
  7. Albuterol Sulfate – Marketed under the brand names Proventil and Ventolin.
  8. Almotriptan Malate – Marketed under the brand name Axert.
  9. Alprazolam – Marketed under the brand names Niravam and Xanax.
  10. Alprostadil – Marketed under the brand name Caverject.
  11. Amantadine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Symmetrel.
  12. Amiloride Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Midamor.
  13. Amiloride Hydrochloride with Hydrochlorothiazide – Marketed under the brand name Moduretic.
  14. Amitriptyline Hydrochloride Amlodipine Besylate with Atorvastatin – Marketed under the brand name Caduet.
  15. Amlodipine Besylate with Benazepril Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Lotrel.
  16. Amlodipine Besylate – Marketed under the brand name Norvasc.
  17. Amoxicillin with Clarithromycin with Lansoprazole – Marketed under the brand name PREVPAC.
  18. Amphetamine Aspartate with Amphetamine Sulfate with Dextroamphetamine Saccharate with Dextroamphetamine Sulfate – Marketed under the brand name Adderall.
  19. Amphotericin B. Liposomal – Marketed under the brand name Ambisome.
  20. Anastrozole – Marketed under the brand name Arimidex.
  21. Aripiprazole – Marketed under the brand name Abilify.
  22. Arsenic Trioxide – Marketed under the brand name Trisenox.
  23. Aspirin with Caffeine with Orphenadrine Citrate – Marketed under the brand name Norgesic.
  24. Atenolol with Chlorthalidone – Marketed under the brand name Tenoretic.
  25. Atenolol – Marketed under the brand name Tenormin.
  26. Atomoxetine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Strattera.
  27. Atorvastatin Calcium – Marketed under the brand name Lipitor.
  28. Atropine Sulfate – Marketed under the brand name Motofen.
  29. Atropine Sulfate with Benzoic Acid with Hyoscyamine with Methenamine with Methylene Blue with Phenyl Salicylate – Marketed under the brand name Urised.
  30. Atropine Sulfate with Hyoscyamine Sulfate with Phenobarbital with Scopolamine Hydrobromide – Marketed under the brand name Donnatal.
  31. Azatadine Maleate – Marketed under the brand name Trinalin.
  32. Azelastine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Astelin.
  33. Balsalazide Disodium – Marketed under the brand name Colazal.
  34. Beclomethasone Dipropionate – Marketed under the brand names Beclovent and Vanceril.
  35. Belladonna Alkaloids with Phenobarbital – Marketed under the brand name Donnatal.
  36. Belladonna Alkaloids with Hyoscyamine Sulfate with Methenamine with Methylene Blue with Phenyl Salicylate with Sodium Biphosphate – Marketed under the brand name Urimax.
  37. Benazepril Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Lotensin.
  38. Bendroflumethiazide – Marketed under the brand name Corzide.
  39. Benztropine Mesylate – Marketed under the brand name Cogentin.
  40. Bepridil Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Vascor.
  41. Betaxolol Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Kerlone.
  42. Bevacizumab – Marketed under the brand name Avastin.
  43. Bexarotene – Marketed under the brand name Targretin.
  44. Bicalutamide – Marketed under the brand name Casodex.
  45. Biperiden Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Akineton.
  46. Brimonidine Tartrate – Marketed under the brand name Alphagan.
  47. Brinzolamide – Marketed under the brand name Azopt.
  48. Brompheniramine Maleate – Marketed under the brand names Bromfed and Dimetane.
  49. Brompheniramine with Phenylpropanolamine with Codeine – Marketed under the brand name Dimetane-DX.
  50. Budesonide – Marketed under the brand names Pulmicort and Rhinocort.
  51. Bupropion Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban.
  52. Buspirone Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Buspar.
  53. Butabarbital with Fluoxetine Hydrochloride with Hyoscyamine Hydrobromide with Phenazopyridine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Pyridium.
  54. Cabergoline – Marketed under the brand name Dostinex.
  55. Calcitonin-Salmon – Marketed under the brand names Fortical and Miacalcin.
  56. Calcitriol – Marketed under the brand name Calcijex.
  57. Capecitabine – Marketed under the brand name Xeloda.
  58. Captopril – Marketed under the brand name Captopril.
  59. Carbamazepine – Marketed under the brand names Carbatrol, Equetro, and Tegretol.
  60. Carbidopa – Marketed under the brand name Lodosyn.
  61. Carbidopa with Levodopa – Marketed under the brand names Parcopa and Sinemet.
  62. Carbidopa with Entacapone with Levodopa – Marketed under the brand name Stalevo.
  63. Carbinoxamine Maleate with Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide with Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Balamine.
  64. Carvedilol – Marketed under the brand name Coreg.
  65. Cefdinir – Marketed under the brand name Omnicef.
  66. Cefditoren Pivoxil – Marketed under the brand name Spectracef.
  67. Cefpodoxime Proxetil – Marketed under the brand name Vantin.
  68. Celecoxib – Marketed under the brand name Celebrex.
  69. Cetirizine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Zyrtec.
  70. Cetirizine Hydrochloride with Pseudoephedrine – Marketed under the brand name Zyrtec-D.
  71. Cevimeline Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Evoxac.
  72. Chlorothiazide Sodium – Marketed under the brand name Diuril.
  73. Chlorpheniramine Maleate – Marketed under the brand name Chlor-Trimeton.
  74. Chlorpromazine – Marketed under the brand name Thorazine.
  75. Chlorthalidone – Marketed under the brand names Thalitone and Hygroton.
  76. Ciprofloxacin – Marketed under the brand name Cipro.
  77. Cisapride – Marketed under the brand name Propulsid.
  78. Citalopram Hydrobromide – Marketed under the brand name Celexa.
  79. Clonazepam – Marketed under the brand name Klonopin.
  80. Clonidine – Marketed under the brand names Catapres and Catapres-TTS.
  81. Clonidine with Chlorthalidone – Marketed under the brand name Combipres.
  82. Clorazepate Dipotassium – Marketed under the brand name Tranxene-SD.
  83. Clozapine – Marketed under the brand names Clozaril and Faxaclo.
  84. Codeine
  85. Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Flexeril.
  86. Cyclosporine – Marketed under the brand names Gengraf and Neoral.
  87. Darifenacin – Marketed under the brand name Enablex.
  88. Delavirdine Mesylate – Marketed under the brand name Rescriptor.
  89. Desipramine – Marketed under the brand name Norpramin.
  90. Desloratadine – Marketed under the brand name Clarinex.
  91. Desloratadine with Loratadine with Pseudoephedrine Sulfate – Marketed under the brand name Clarinex-D.
  92. Dexmethylphenidate Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Focalin.
  93. Dextroamphetamine Sulfate – Marketed under the brand names Dexedrine and Dextrostat.
  94. Diazepam – Marketed under the brand name Valium.
  95. Diazoxide – Marketed under the brand name Hyperstat.
  96. Diclofenac Potassium – Marketed under the brand name Cataflam.
  97. Diclofenac Sodium with Misoprostol – Marketed under the brand name Arthrotec.
  98. Diclofenac Sodium – Marketed under the brand names Voltaren and Voltaren-XR.
  99. Dicyclomine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Bentyl.
  100. Diethylpropion Hydrochloride USP – Marketed under the brand name Tenuate.
  101. Diflunisal – Marketed under the brand name Dolobid.
  102. Dihydroergotamine Mesylate – Marketed under the brand name Migranal.
  103. Diltiazem Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand names Cardizem, Dilacor, and Tiazac.
  104. Diphenhydramine – Marketed under the brand names Dramamine and Benadryl.
  105. Disopyramide Phosphate – Marketed under the brand name Norpace.
  106. Divalproex Sodium – Marketed under the brand name Depakote.
  107. Donepezil Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Aricept.
  108. Dorzolamide Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand names Cosopt and Trusopt.
  109. Doxepin Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Prudoxin.
  110. Doxercalciferol – Marketed under the brand name Hectorol.
  111. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome – Marketed under the brand name Doxil.
  112. Duloxetine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Cymbalta.
  113. Eletriptan Hydrobromide – Marketed under the brand name Relpax.
  114. Enalapril Maleate with Hydrochlorothiazide – Marketed under the brand name Vaseretic.
  115. Enalapril Maleate – Marketed under the brand name Vasotec.
  116. Enalaprilat
  117. Enfuvirtide – Marketed under the brand name Fuzeon.
  118. Enoxacin – Marketed under the brand name Penetrex.
  119. Entacapone – Marketed under the brand name Comtan.
  120. Ephedrine Sulfate with Hydroxyzine Hydrochloride with Theophylline – Marketed under the brand name Marax.
  121. Eprosartan Mesylate – Marketed under the brand name Teveten.
  122. Escitalopram Oxalate – Marketed under the brand name Lexapro.
  123. Esmolol Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Brevibloc.
  124. Esomeprazole Magnesium – Marketed under the brand name Nexium.
  125. Estazolam – Marketed under the brand name Prosom.
  126. Eszopiclone – Marketed under the brand name Lunesta.
  127. Etanercept – Marketed under the brand name Enbrel.
  128. Famotidine – Marketed under the brand name Pepcid.
  129. Felodipine – Marketed under the brand name Plendil.
  130. Fenofibrate – Marketed under the brand names Antara, Lofibra, and Tricor.
  131. Fenoprofen Calcium – Marketed under the brand name Nalfon.
  132. Fentanyl – Marketed under the brand name Duragesic.
  133. Fentanyl Citrate – Marketed under the brand name Actiq.
  134. Fexofenadine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Allegra-D.
  135. Flecainide Acetate – Marketed under the brand name Tambocor.
  136. Fluocinolone Acetonide with Hydroquinone with Tretinoin – Marketed under the brand name Tri-Luma.
  137. Fluoxetine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Prozac.
  138. Fluoxetine Hydrochloride with Olanzapine – Marketed under the brand name Symbyax.
  139. Flurazepam Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Dalmane.
  140. Fluticasone Propionate with Salmeterol Xinafoate – Marketed under the brand name Advair.
  141. Fluvoxamine Maleate – Marketed under the brand name Luvox.
  142. Formoterol Fumarate – Marketed under the brand name Foradil.
  143. Foscarnet Sodium – Marketed under the brand name Foscavir.
  144. Fosinopril Sodium – Marketed under the brand name Monopril.
  145. Frovatriptan Succinate – Marketed under the brand name Frova.
  146. Furosemide – Marketed under the brand name Lasix.
  147. Gabapentin – Marketed under the brand name Neurontin.
  148. Galantamine Hydrobromide – Marketed under the brand name Razadyne.
  149. Ganciclovir – Marketed under the brand name Cytovene.
  150. Gemifloxacin Mesylate – Marketed under the brand name Factive.
  151. Glatiramer Acetate – Marketed under the brand name Copaxone.
  152. Glycopyrrolate – Marketed under the brand name Robinul.
  153. Goserelin Acetate – Marketed under the brand name Zoladex.
  154. Grepafloxacin Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Raxar.
  155. Guanadrel Sulfate – Marketed under the brand name Hylorel.
  156. Guanfacine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Tenex.
  157. Guanidine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Guanidine.
  158. Haloperidol – Marketed under the brand name Haldol.
  159. Hydrochlorothiazide
  160. Hydrochlorothiazide with Triamterene – Marketed under the brand name Dyazide.
  161. Hydrocodone Bitartrate with Ibuprofen – Marketed under the brand name Vicoprofen.
  162. Hydromorphone Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand names Dilaudid and Dilaudid-HP.
  163. Hyoscyamine – Marketed under the brand names Cystospaz, Levbid, and Nulev.
  164. Ibuprofen – Marketed under the brand names Advil and Motrin.
  165. Ibuprofen with Oxycodone Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Combunox.
  166. Imipramine Pamoate – Marketed under the brand name Tofranil.
  167. Interferon Alfa-2b, Recombinant – Marketed under the brand name Intron.
  168. Interferon Alfacon-1 – Marketed under the brand name Infergen.
  169. Interferon Alfa-N3 – Marketed under the brand name Human Leukocyte Derived. – Marketed under the brand name Alferon.
  170. Interferon Beta-1a – Marketed under the brand name Rebif.
  171. Ipratropium Bromide – Marketed under the brand name Atrovent.
  172. Isosorbide Mononitrate – Marketed under the brand names Imdur and Monoket.
  173. Isotretinoin – Marketed under the brand names Accutane and Amnesteem.
  174. Isradipine – Marketed under the brand name Dynacirc.
  175. Ketoprofen – Marketed under the brand name Orudis.
  176. Ketotifen Fumarate – Marketed under the brand name Zaditor.
  177. Lamotrigine – Marketed under the brand name Lamictal.
  178. Lansoprazole – Marketed under the brand name Prevacid.
  179. Leflunomide – Marketed under the brand name Arava.
  180. Leuprolide Acetate – Marketed under the brand names Lupron and Viadur.
  181. Levalbuterol Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Xopenex.
  182. Levofloxacin – Marketed under the brand name Levaquin.
  183. Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Orlaam.
  184. Levorphanol Tartrate – Marketed under the brand name Levorphanol.
  185. Lisinopril – Marketed under the brand names Prinivil and Zestril.
  186. Lisinopril with Hydrochlorothiazide – Marketed under the brand name Zestoretic.
  187. Lithium Carbonate – Marketed under the brand names Eskalith and Lithobid.
  188. Lomefloxacin Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Maxaquin.
  189. Loperamide Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Imodium.
  190. Lopinavir with Ritonavir – Marketed under the brand name Kaletra.
  191. Loratadine – Marketed under the brand name Claritin.
  192. Loratadine with Pseudoephedrine – Marketed under the brand name Claritin-D.
  193. Losartan Potassium – Marketed under the brand name Cozaar.
  194. Losartan Potassium with Hydrochlorothiazide – Marketed under the brand name Hyzaar.
  195. Lovastatin with Niacin – Marketed under the brand name Advicor.
  196. Lovastatin – Marketed under the brand names Altoprev and Mevacor.
  197. Loxapine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Loxitane.
  198. Mecamylamine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Inversine.
  199. Meclizine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand names Antivert and Bonine.
  200. Mefenamic Acid – Marketed under the brand name Ponstel.
  201. Megestrol Acetate – Marketed under the brand name Megace.
  202. Meloxicam – Marketed under the brand name Mobic.
  203. Meperidine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Mepergan.
  204. Mesalamine – Marketed under the brand name Asacol.
  205. Metaproterenol Sulfate – Marketed under the brand name Alupent.
  206. Methadone Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand names Dolophine and Methadone.
  207. Methamphetamine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Desoxyn.
  208. Methyldopate Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Aldomet.
  209. Metoprolol Succinate – Marketed under the brand name Toprol-XL.
  210. Metronidazole – Marketed under the brand names Metrogel-Vaginal and Noritate.
  211. Metyrosine – Marketed under the brand name Demser.
  212. Midodrine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Proamatine.
  213. Mirtazapine – Marketed under the brand name Remeron.
  214. Modafinil – Marketed under the brand name Provigil.
  215. Moexipril Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Univasc.
  216. Molindone Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Moban.
  217. Mometasone Furoate – Marketed under the brand name Elocon.
  218. Moricizine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Ethmozine.
  219. Morphine Sulfate – Marketed under the brand names Avinza, Kadian, MSIR, and Roxanol.
  220. Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Avelox.
  221. Mupirocin calcium – Marketed under the brand name Bactroban.
  222. Mycophenolate Mofetil – Marketed under the brand name Cellcept.
  223. Nabumetone – Marketed under the brand name Relafen.
  224. Nadolol – Marketed under the brand name Nadolol.
  225. Nalbuphine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Nubain.
  226. Naltrexone Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Revia.
  227. Naproxen – Marketed under the brand names Aleve and Naprosyn.
  228. Nedocromil Sodium – Marketed under the brand name Tilade.
  229. Niacin – Marketed under the brand name Niaspan.
  230. Nicotine – Marketed under the brand names Habitrol, Nicorette, and Nicotrol.
  231. Nifedipine – Marketed under the brand name Adalat.
  232. Nisoldipine – Marketed under the brand name Sular.
  233. Nizatidine – Marketed under the brand name Axid.
  234. Norfloxacin – Marketed under the brand name Noroxin.
  235. Octreotide Acetate – Marketed under the brand name Sandostatin.
  236. Ofloxacin – Marketed under the brand name Floxin.
  237. Olanzapine – Marketed under the brand name Zyprexa.
  238. Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters – Marketed under the brand name Omacor.
  239. Omeprazole – Marketed under the brand names Prilosec and Zegerid.
  240. Ondansetron – Marketed under the brand name Zofran.
  241. Orphenadrine Citrate – Marketed under the brand name Norflex.
  242. Oxaliplatin – Marketed under the brand name Eloxatin.
  243. Oxcarbazepine – Marketed under the brand name Trileptal.
  244. Oxybutynin – Marketed under the brand name Oxytrol.
  245. Oxybutynin Chloride – Marketed under the brand name Ditropan.
  246. Oxycodone Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Oxycontin.
  247. Oxymorphone Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Numorphan.
  248. Palonosetron Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Aloxi.
  249. Pantoprazole Sodium – Marketed under the brand name Protonix.
  250. Paricalcitol – Marketed under the brand name Zemplar.
  251. Paroxetine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Paxil.
  252. Peginterferon Alfa-2a – Marketed under the brand name Pegasys.
  253. Peginterferon Alfa-2b – Marketed under the brand name PEG-Intron.
  254. Pemetrexed – Marketed under the brand name Alimta.
  255. Pentazocine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand names Talwin and Talwin Nx.
  256. Pergolide Mesylate – Marketed under the brand name Permax.
  257. Perindopril Erbumine – Marketed under the brand name Aceon.
  258. Perphenazine – Marketed under the brand name Trilafon.
  259. Phenelzine sulfate – Marketed under the brand name Nardil.
  260. Phendimetrazine Tartrate – Marketed under the brand name Bontril.
  261. Phentermine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand names Adipex-P and Fastin.
  262. Pimozide – Marketed under the brand name Orap.
  263. Pirbuterol Acetate – Marketed under the brand name Maxair.
  264. Piroxicam – Marketed under the brand name Feldene.
  265. Pramipexole Dihydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Mirapex.
  266. Pregabalin – Marketed under the brand name Lyrica.
  267. Procarbazine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Matulane.
  268. Prochlorperazine – Marketed under the brand names Compazine and Compro.
  269. Progesterone – Marketed under the brand names Crinone, Prochieve, and Prometrium.
  270. Promethazine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Phenergan.
  271. Propafenone Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Rythmol.
  272. Propofol – Marketed under the brand names Diprivan and Propofol.
  273. Propoxyphene Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Darvon.
  274. Protirelin – Marketed under the brand name Thyrel.
  275. Protriptyline Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Vivactil.
  276. Quetiapine Fumarate – Marketed under the brand name Seroquel.
  277. Rabeprazole Sodium – Marketed under the brand name Aciphex.
  278. Ramipril – Marketed under the brand name Altace.
  279. Rescinnamine – Marketed under the brand name Moderil.
  280. Ribavirin – Marketed under the brand names Copegus and Rebetol.
  281. Riluzole – Marketed under the brand name Rilutek.
  282. Rimantadine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Flumadine.
  283. Risedronate Sodium – Marketed under the brand name Actonel.
  284. Risperidone – Marketed under the brand name Risperdal.
  285. Ritonavir – Marketed under the brand name Norvir.
  286. Rivastigmine Tartrate – Marketed under the brand name Exelon.
  287. Rizatriptan Benzoate – Marketed under the brand name Maxalt-MLT.
  288. Ropinirole Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Requip.
  289. Salmeterol Xinafoate – Marketed under the brand name Serevent.
  290. Saquinavir Mesylate – Marketed under the brand name Invirase.
  291. Scopolamine – Marketed under the brand name Transderm.
  292. Selegiline Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Eldepryl.
  293. Sertraline Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Zoloft.
  294. Sevoflurane – Marketed under the brand name Ultane.
  295. Sibutramine Hydrochloride Monohydrate – Marketed under the brand name Meridia.
  296. Sildenafil Citrate – Marketed under the brand name Viagra.
  297. Sodium Ferric Gluconate – Marketed under the brand name Ferrlecit.
  298. Solifenacin Succinate – Marketed under the brand name Vesicare.
  299. Sparfloxacin – Marketed under the brand name Zagam.
  300. Sucralfate – Marketed under the brand name Carafate.
  301. Sulindac – Marketed under the brand name Clinoril.
  302. Sumatriptan Succinate – Marketed under the brand name Imitrex.
  303. Tadalafil – Marketed under the brand name Cialis.
  304. Telithromycin – Marketed under the brand name Ketek.
  305. Telmisartan – Marketed under the brand name Micardis.
  306. Temazepam – Marketed under the brand name Restoril.
  307. Terazosin Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Hytrin.
  308. Terbutaline Sulfate – Marketed under the brand name Brethine.
  309. Testosterone – Marketed under the brand names Androgel, Testoderm, Striant, and Androderm.
  310. Thalidomide – Marketed under the brand name Thalomid.
  311. Thiabendazole – Marketed under the brand name Mintezol.
  312. Thioridazine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Thioridazine.
  313. Thiothixene – Marketed under the brand name Thiothixene.
  314. Tiagabine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Gabitril.
  315. Tigecycline – Marketed under the brand name Tygacil.
  316. Timolol Hemihydrate – Marketed under the brand name Betimol.
  317. Timolol Maleate – Marketed under the brand names Timoptic and Timoptic-XE.
  318. Tinidazole – Marketed under the brand name Tindamax.
  319. Tiotropium Bromide – Marketed under the brand name Spiriva.
  320. Tizanidine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Zanaflex.
  321. Tocainide Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Tonocard.
  322. Tolcapone – Marketed under the brand name Tasmar.
  323. Tolterodine Tartrate – Marketed under the brand name Detrol.
  324. Topiramate – Marketed under the brand name Topamax.
  325. Tramadol Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Ultram.
  326. Trandolapril with Verapamil Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Tarka.
  327. Tranylcypromine Sulfate – Marketed under the brand name Parnate.
  328. Triamcinolone Acetonide – Marketed under the brand names Azmacort and Nasacort.
  329. Triamterene – Marketed under the brand name Dyrenium.
  330. Triamterene with Hydrochlorothiazide – Marketed under the brand names Maxzide and Dyazide.
  331. Triazolam – Marketed under the brand name Halcion.
  332. Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Stelazine.
  333. Trihexyphenidyl Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Artane.
  334. Trimipramine Maleate – Marketed under the brand name Surmontil.
  335. Trospium Chloride – Marketed under the brand name Sanctura.
  336. Valproate Sodium – Marketed under the brand name Depacon.
  337. Valproic Acid – Marketed under the brand name Depakene.
  338. Valsartan – Marketed under the brand name Diovan.
  339. Valsartin with Hydrochlorothiazide – Marketed under the brand name Diovan HCT.
  340. Vardenafil Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Levitra.
  341. Venlafaxine Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Effexor.
  342. Verapamil Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand names Covera-HS and Verelan.
  343. Voriconazole – Marketed under the brand name VFEND.
  344. Zaleplon – Marketed under the brand name Sonata.
  345. Ziprasidone Hydrochloride – Marketed under the brand name Geodon.
  346. Zolmitriptan – Marketed under the brand name Zomig.
  347. Zolpidem Tartrate – Marketed under the brand name Ambien.
  348. Zonisamide – Marketed under the brand name Zonegran.
Source: The American Dental Association / Physician’s Desk Reference Guide to Dental Therapeutics

Conclusion

Hopefully you found this list helpful.  Keep in mind that even if you are taking one or two drugs from the list above, you may not experience dry mouth.  I’ve seen patients that are taking a few drugs that supposedly cause dry mouth, but they don’t seem to have any problems… However, some people who are taking just one of the drugs on the above list could have significant dry mouth.  We’re all different!

If you know of any other drugs that cause dry mouth or want to share your experiences with any of the above drugs and if it caused your mouth to get dry, please leave a comment below.

Thanks for reading!

Causes of Dry Mouth Xerotomia
©Carlos Castilla/Shutterstock.com

Dry mouth, or xerostomia to medical professionals, occurs in 25% of older adults and has even been reported to occur in 10% of adults in their 30’s.  Dry mouth is a condition that can have a negative impact on your oral health.  It also impacts your ability to eat food and speak, and has been said to cause bad breath.

Basically, if you have dry mouth you are missing out on many of the benefits that your spit provides to your mouth.

I’ll talk about all of the effects of dry mouth in a future article.  What I want to talk about right now is what causes dry mouth.  Dry mouth is caused by a variety of different factors.  I’ve listed six main causes of dry mouth, which you can find below.

Six Causes of Dry Mouth, Xerostomia

Dry Mouth Causes

1 – Medications – This is one of the most common causes of dry mouth.  There are literally hundreds of medications that cause dry mouth.  Some of the more common ones are anti-depressants, sedatives, beta-blockers, high blood pressure medication, antihistamines, and cold/flu medications.  Other drugs, such as tobacco and alcohol, can directly dry out the mouth.

Learn more about 348 medications that cause dry mouth.

2 – Anxiety, Depression, or Stress – These conditions have been shown to cause dry mouth.  The best way to treat it is to find effective ways to manage your anxiety, depression, or stress.

3 – Diabetes – There is some debate whether diabetes causes dry mouth or not.  Here’s what the book Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology by Neville has to say about diabetes and dry mouth:

Xerostomia, a subjective feeling of dryness of the oral mucosa, has been reported as a complaint in one third of diabetic patients.  Unfortunately, studies that attempt to confirm an actual decrease in salivary flow rate in diabetic patients have produced conflicting results.  Some studies show a decrease in salivary flow; some, no difference from normal; and some, an increased salivary flow rate.

4 – Autoimmune Diseases such as Sjögren’s syndrome, HIV, and Graft-versus-Host disease.  Sjögren’s syndrome causes dry mouth and dry eyes.  In other immunologic diseases, it is suspected that the body’s immune system is attacking the salivary glands, thus decreasing the amount of saliva that is produced.

5 – Radiation treatment to the head and/or neck area – Radiation treatment to the head and neck area can cause damage to the salivary glands.  Some of the glands can recover and produce saliva normally after radiation treatment.  The biggest salivary gland, however, usually has trouble recovering and can be permanently damaged, leading to chronic dry mouth.

6 – Hormone changes – Hormonal changes occur with pregnancy and menopause in females.  These hormonal changes have been associated with dry mouth.  If you are pregnant and experiencing dry mouth, your dry mouth should resolve once your baby is born.  If you have dry mouth associated with menopause, you may want to see your dentist to see what kind of treatment is available.

Conclusion

As you can see, there are numerous causes for dry mouth.  Do you have dry mouth?  Please leave any comments or questions in the comments section below.

Sources: Xerostomia: Etiology, Recognition, and Treatment | ADA: Do you Have Dry Mouth? | Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology by Neville

47
Meth Ruins Teeth
©Sylvie Bouchard/Shutterstock.com

Before I came to dental school, I worked at a dental clinic that served those with little or no financial resources.  I remember vividly a young woman in her twenties who had to have all of her teeth extracted.  All of her teeth had extensive decay.  She had used methamphetamine for years before coming to see us.  We were able to make her dentures.  While the dentures worked great, they simply aren’t the same as natural teeth.

Commonly known as crystal meth, meth, crank, speed, glass, or over 100 other different names, methamphetamine can literally ruin your mouth in a very short time.

Seven Ways Methamphetamine Ruins Your Teeth

Blue Crystal Methamphetamine1 – It dries out your mouth. -Methamphetamine directly inhibits saliva flow from the salivary glands.  The saliva offers a lot of protection to the teeth, something I recently wrote about in an article called How Saliva Protects Your Teeth.   In short, when the saliva stops flowing, the teeth are left without many defenses.

2 – Crystal meth gives the user a prolonged “high,” which often causes them to pass out. Meth users have a tendency to pass out frequently.  When they pass out, they are breathing through their mouth, which dries out the mouth.  And without saliva circulating in the mouth, the teeth are at risk.

3 – Meth is acidic by nature. This has been debated.  Some people say that meth isn’t acidic.  Some say it is. Pure methamphetamine is NOT acidic, but most street meth contains acidic byproducts.  For example, the most common method of manufacturing meth in the United States is the Red, White, and Blue Method.  This method of methamphetamine synthesis produces hydroiodic acid.  Other acids can be made as byproducts depending on how the methamphetamine is synthesized.

If only those that manufacture meth knew about the devastating effects of acid on the teeth — they’d probably be sure to only sell you pure methamphetamine!

4 – Meth users clench their teeth a lot. Many meth users are anxious and paranoid, mostly due to the effects of the drug on their body.  When they clench their teeth, they are grinding away valuable tooth structure that has already been weakened due to the other effects of meth mentioned in this article.

Blue Crystal Methamphetamine

5 – Meth gives the user a craving for sugary, carbonated drinks. Since the methamphetamine buydiazepamsite.com dries out their mouth, meth users often try to alleviate this side effect by reaching for soda or energy drinks.  This only adds insult to injury for their teeth, as pointed out in the article Nine Drinks That Can Dissolve Your Teeth.

6 – Meth destroys the enamel. It does this by causing cavities to form and by releasing toxic chemicals that damage the teeth.  In the book Treatment Planning in Dentistry by Stefanac and Nesbit it says:

“Meth mouth” typically begins with the yellowing of the user’s teeth and rapidly deteriorating enamel “flaking” off from the underlying tooth structure. Repeated use of the drug eventually leaves the user’s teeth looking grayish-brown or black stained, decayed to the gum line, and often nonrestorable. The rapid destruction of tooth enamel is thought to be a result of the heated vapors released by toxic chemicals produced while smoking methamphetamine.

7 – Meth Addicts are concerned about how to get their next high, not about their oral health. If you’re addicted to meth, then you probably spend a great deal of time, energy, and money supporting this habit.  Those with addictions of this nature are unlikely to be seeking routine dental care or even brushing and flossing regularly.

Conclusion

Methamphetamine causes significant harm to the teeth no matter how it is taken.  If methamphetamine is smoked, it is much more harmful for the teeth than when injected.  The book Primary Preventive Dentistry by Norman Harris says this about how methamphetamine is used:

It is thought that smokers [of methamphetamine] have worse dental effects, because the chemicals are brought in direct contact with the oral cavity, causing sores and infections. Injectors of methamphetamine do not experience the same severe tooth decay; however, they do experience more severe clenching and grinding. The increased bruxism is attributed to the more powerful effects of the injected drug.

If you or someone you know is addicted to methamphetamine, try to get help as soon as possible.  Methamphetamine doesn’t just affect the teeth, it affects the whole body.

Here’s a good article from Minnesota Public Radio about Ryan Hintz, a recovering meth addict, about how he is overcoming the addiction.

If you have any questions or comments about methamphetamine and dental health, please leave them in the comments below.  Thanks for reading!

2
How Saliva Protects Teeth
©TammyKayPhoto/Shutterstock.com

A couple of years ago, my wife and I were on a walk near our community’s park. A baseball game was taking place on the baseball field and we stopped to watch. I noticed that some of the players were constantly spitting into the dirt near the dugout.

It tooThe Importance of Saliva - Overlooked by Little League Playersk almost all of the self-control that I had to stop myself from yelling, “What’s wrong with you!? Don’t you know what great things that spit could do for your teeth? Why would you waste it like that?”

Okay, I might not have actually thought that, but the fact remains that saliva doesplay many important roles when it comes to keeping your teeth in optimal condition.

Luckily, the average person produces about one liter of saliva each day, so there’s still enough to spit out during a baseball game.

Six Ways Saliva Protects Your Teeth

1 -Saliva neutralizes acids that can erode your teeth. Plaque produces acid that causes cavities.  Acids can also be found in many of the foods we eat and lots of different beverages that we drink.  Another way that we can get acid in our mouth is through acid-reflux from the stomach or by vomiting.  Luckily, saliva has molecules called buffers that can neutralize the acid, reducing its effect on our teeth.

2 – Saliva inhibits demineralization of the tooth surface and promotes remineralization. That means that when acids try to dissolve the outer layer of your teeth (the enamel), your saliva is right there, super-saturated with extra calcium and phosphate to prevent the acid from demineralizing your teeth.  When the acid is so strong that it does demineralize the tooth, your saliva will neutralize the acid as soon as possible, and then replace the lost tooth with calcium and phosphate.

Saliva can even contain fluoride when people drink fluoridated water or use a fluoride mouthrinse and/or fluoride toothpaste.  This extra fluoride in the saliva can help remineralize teeth with the fluoride ions and make them more resistant to future attacks from plaque.

For more information on how fluoride can protect the teeth, read the article The Three Ways that Fluoride Protects Your Teeth.

3 – Saliva cleanses the mouth. After you eat a satisfying meal, your saliva goes to work to rinse away any extra food that may be stuck on your teeth.  When the food sticks to your teeth, it can feed the bacteria that live on your teeth, helping them to hurt your teeth.  By washing away the food, your saliva is getting rid of the food source for the bacteria, ensuring that your teeth remain in good condition for a long, long time.  Saliva can even wash away actual bacteria, preventing them from grabbing onto your teeth and residing there until the time when a toothbrush scrapes it away.

Spit Can Protect Your Teeth

4 – Saliva can kill bacteria. Saliva has many different antibacterial agents in it that can destroy bacteria.  This is helpful not only for your teeth, but for your whole body.  Specific components in saliva have been shown to slow the growth of a cavity-causing strain of bacteria known as streptococcus mutans.  Here’s one study that demonstrated saliva’s antibacterial effect that was published in the Journal of Dental Research.

5 – Saliva strengthens newly-erupted teeth. When teeth first come into the mouth, their enamel isn’t fully developed.  Saliva fills in the weak parts of the new tooth with calcium, phosphate, and fluoride to make these new teeth strong and ready for battle against your teeth’s worst enemies.

6 – Saliva can form a protective coating on teeth. Proteins in the saliva bind to the tooth surface.  The book Essentials of Dental Caries by Kidd, “Salivary proteins could increase the thickness of the acquired pellicle and so help to retard the movement of calcium and phosphate ions out of enamel.”

By keeping calcium and phosphate in the tooth, the salivary pellicle could aid in preventing cavities.  Ironically, the salivary pellicle is a sticky coating that helps cavity-causing bacteria adhere to the tooth surface.  In a way, it can be both a good and bad thing.

Further Reading & Conclusion

There are a couple of good reports about saliva, such as  Saliva — The Defender of the Oral Cavity by Amerongen and another study by Amerongen about salivary proteins.  You’ll probably need a subscription from a major university to get to them, but I thought I would link to them anyway for those of you who are able to access them.

Do you have any questions or comments about how saliva protects your teeth?  Leave them below in the comments section!